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Equations of Transformers

Equations of Transformers

Equations of Transformers

The voltage across a coil in a transformer is proportional to the number of turns in the coil. We can find the efficiency of a transformer by comparing the input voltage with the output voltage.

A transformer has two coils. What is it that allows the transformer to increase or decrease the amount of voltage?


Recap from previous lessons

A transformer works by increasing or decreasing the voltage of an alternating current. It does this by using a primary coil of wire wrapped around a magnetic iron core to induce a current in a secondary coil of wire. The number of loops on the secondary coil determines if the voltage increases or decreases.

Which of these might be the correct symbols for voltage and current in the primary coil?

So current is represented by II and voltage is represented by VV. What do you think NN could represent?

So VV is voltage, II is current and NN is number of loops or turns in the coil.


For the primary coil...

we use a little p_p to show when we are referring to the primary coil: VpV_p, IpI_p and NpN_p


For the secondary coil...

we use a little s_s to show when we are referring to the secondary coil: VsV_s, IsI_s and NsN_s

If a transformer is 100% efficient, what must be true about VpIpV_{p}I_{p} and VsIsV_{s}I_{s}?

The primary coil in a transformer has 2 turns and produces 3 Volts. The secondary coil in the same transformer has 12 turns and produces 18 Volts.


How many times more turns are there in the secondary coil compared to the primary coil?


How many times more voltage is in the secondary coil compared to the primary coil?

If the secondary coils has 5 turns and produces 8 volts, then how many volts does the secondary coil produce if it has 25 turns?

Which formula correctly describes the relationship between number of turns and amount of voltage produced in the primary and secondary coils?

The ratio of Vp : VsV_p \space : \space V_s has to equal the ratio Np : NsN_p \space : \space N_s. For example, if there are 2 turns in the first coil and 4 turns in the secondary coil, there are twice as many turns in the secondary coil as in the primary coil, so the secondary coil will also produce twice as much voltage as the primary coil.

We can express that like this: VpVs=NpNs\frac{V_{p}}{V_{s}}=\frac{N_{p}}{N_{s}}

Now, if the primary coil has 3 turns and produces 5 volts, and the secondary coil has 9 turns, then how many Volts does the secondary coil produce?