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Electric Charge

Particles can either be positive, negative or neutral. The dynamics of charged particles is what gives rise to electricity.


Current is the movement of charged particles, most commonly electrons moving through a metal.

Potential Difference

The voltage or potential difference is the driving force behind a current. It is the energy per charge.


All components have some resistance, which is the electric "friction" obstructing the flow of a current moving through a material.


Circuits allow current to flow through components, providing energy to devices.

Domestic Electricity

Mains electricity is the alternating current (AC) electric power supplied to homes and businesses.

Energy Transfers

Power is the rate of energy transfer, and in the UK, energy is distributed by the National Grid.

Digital Electronics

Signals can either be digital or analogue. Digital signals can be used for logic gates.