Waves are the transfer of energy. They can be longitudinal or transverse, and are described waves in terms of their amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed.
Waves of Information
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
Amplitude and Wavelength
Period and Frequency
Speed of Wave
Reflection occurs when a wave bounces off a surface without getting absorbed or transmitted. It's what give things colour and what produces reflections in mirrors.
Reflection at a Boundary
Ray Diagrams of Reflection
Mirror Images and Virtual Images
Specular and Diffuse Reflection
Colour of Light and Reflection
Waves spread out when they move past objects or go through a gap that is of comparable size to their wavelength.
Waves can change in speed, wavelength and direction when passing between media of different densities.
Ray Diagrams of Refraction
Total Internal Reflection
By refracting visible light with lenses, we can create images of objects that can be magnified or diminished.
Refracting Light with a Lens
The Eye as a Lens
Magnification: Applied Converging Lenses
From radio waves to gamma rays, electromagnetic waves form a spectrum ranging in wavelength and frequency.
Properties of EM Waves
Effect of Wavelength and Substance on Wave Movement
Sound waves transfer energy by vibrating particles.
Sound, Compression and Rarefaction
Amplitude and Frequency
Uses of Ultrasound and Infrasound
Speed of Sound
Studying the seismic waves caused by earthquakes allows us to know the internal structure of the Earth.